Iran is one of the world’s known lands of vast oak forests; the vast region of Zagros with a wide range of oak forests has stored one of the greatest world’s wealth within it. Unfortunately, for various human and natural reasons, these forests have been faced with serious damages. In Iran, these vast trees occasionally are cut and carbonized based on our disgraced and lack of attention, but in other countries such as Portugal, they are considered as one of the valuable assets. In such countries, not only oak trees are not cut, but also are very important for the people’s territories.
Social and environmental campaign of “Touch of oak” is about recognizing the oak tree in different lands, the importance of forests in livelihood anywhere in the world and myths arising from this tree between different cultures. After studying the species of trees and margins bushfires in Iran, decided to state that this tree species is habitat to study pay, Portugal was the first country that I chose and kind of ambassador for 20 days paid research. View user of the forest, views of the village and scholars, the country achieved a breakthrough video and text from my trip to the land to bring. Perhaps it is a precursor to the development of a culture of protection of the trees on the land. On his journey from Lisbon to Guadiana protected area in the city and the people I met Alentejo to tell their story in my image of rural life like the people of Lorestan province. In this journey with great masters of archeology and biology as well as ordinary people who have done interviews on the time of the study.
Introduction to the Portugal
During conversations with the local people of the country had different arguments and logic of naming the country heard interesting point is that most Portuguese did not know the name of Portugal’s famous citrus and after hearing the way appellation flowed laugh on her lips. A beautiful city located in the north of the country, which has twice won the best tourist destination in Europe, the name of the city of Porto or the local term he is light. First name Portugal was derived from the name of this beautiful city and the neighboring areas of the city along the beautiful Douro Portuguese territory Terra Portucalense say, some of the country’s name from the port of Cale people know the Puerto Cale (Port of Calais).
The naming of the indigenous peoples should be recognized as not fully reflect the differences in architecture in the cities of Porto and Lisbon is the difference between. In Lisbon, the city of seven hills known architecture is such that the Arabs and Africans have been affected, very narrow streets and colorful buildings and a very diverse and beautiful tile work on the walls of houses show Muslim architects and the African presence. I was talking with an old taxi driver who told me that the old Lisbon Arabs to preserve coolness in the narrow alleys and buildings that were annoying entry of the sun into your home design. For me as an Iranian who was familiar with the art of tiling exquisite view of the user tile for exterior scenes was very interesting buildings.
West Orange the mainland of Europe with only your neighbor Spain has created the Iberian Peninsula. The country’s western border is in the vicinity of the Atlantic Ocean and one of the most exquisite beaches in the world known to have been allocated. Two archipelagos Roy and Madeira are also part of its territory. Roman Catholicism is the religion of the common people and the official language of Portugal is Portuguese is the language of Roman origin.
Oak tree in Portugal
Before start to write the first logbook of Portugal, it is necessary to talk about the oak forests of this beautiful country. Oak tree has a long history of nature and from ancient times the tree has been involved in myths and human profile, high specific species of this tree makes up the world’s forests respectively, Ancients of the tree can be found in Greek and Roman mythology. The inscription of the historical city of Evora in the provincial capital Alentejo at the Museum of the City saw the Roman commander after the conquest battles to put a crown of leaves. This tree is also a symbol of Zeus in Greek thought considered. Lord Green or Green man who is one of the myths of the ancient world and many have regarded the oak tree, interesting signs of this mythical creature beneath tall columns of the great Church (Igreja Martiz) in the course of a mosque in the town of Mertola.
Date of Zagros forests 5,500 years ago thought that the increase in rainfall and reduce the temperature of the Sawan available at the time. The most important plant species of these forests are oak trees (Quercus Brantii). Oak community of more than 3500000 hectares of land in the forest-covered slopes of the Zagros, the release of the society for the south-western slopes of the Zagros Mountains, which deal with the moisture from the Persian Gulf. Deployment height of the tree at a height of between 1,000 and 2,000 meters above sea level, with 12.4 million hectares of forests, 4.7% of the country is taken and then compared with the rest of the world in terms of forest cover poor country but we are in terms of diversity of plant and plant genetic resources are unique in the world. The number of plant species of which about 8,000 species known geographer of the bridge between global climates. Oak forests in recent years for failing to show their importance to the livelihoods of the Zagros settlement is under serious threat and our duty as residents of the country to do a special move.
In Portugal in the northern and central need and sometimes different species of oak in the southern part of the deal, some of which are very similar to species found in Iran. I travel through the country’s central province of Alentejo I started this part of the country Portugal is the main habitat of oak trees.
One of the remarkable stockade in Portugal pastures very good, unlike the conventional method in which the loss of Chinese walls is exquisite landscapes in Portugal gardens only by barbed wire protect are short, this makes to the tourist areas are not damaged and cattle in areas not allow it, as well as wild animals cannot enter into the urban area. In the future to show you to maintain the environment needed to keep pristine environment using converged architecture and construction are by nature subject in both rural and urban architecture of Portugal is well respected and, unfortunately, in our country we have no view on it.
Monte o More
The first part of my journey paved the way to the city of Lisbon; Evora was formed, after passing about 100 km from Lisbon to the East of the town with Montemor- o – Novo seen on a hill of the castle ancient glaring. This small village near one of the oldest signs of human prehistory (the Megalithic era) in its place. Ancient three regions called Cromleh of Almendres, Anta grande do Zambujeiro and ancient Escoural caves after a 5 km distance from the main road to the top of the hill in dense oak groves Almendrs and passing it comes to the point that indicate the presence of early humans. The region has two parts that are a part of ancient stone and in others only a distance of 1 km is a lot of large rocks. For those who have visited this area, no stone, no stone will be very similar.
After visiting the historic sites a distance of about 35 kilometers to get to the historical city of Evora I took in all the control areas are pristine oak forests on the edge of the road, as if the lives of the people of this province have been associated with the oak tree. His area of research has been done on the basis of the ancient Neolithic period in geological makers is, the period around 7000 to 8000 years ago. In addition to the works of several other important Paleolithic era have been found in this section that they can be referred to the Dolmen of Paco das Vinhas.
His city is surrounded by a protective wall is very long and by the middle part of the wall and outer wall divided the city in two, most of the monuments of the city it is located in the middle section. A small town with a long history, dating back to the Roman period can be attributed to urbanization and the remains of Roman walls of the land clearly visible in all parts of the city. In the city Portelli and ultimately my main destination was the city Mertola, for three day stay in this beautiful city to be able to review the work of museums and Roman remains, as well as an interview with the head of the Department of History, University Professor Fatima Nunes get him my way to get to the historical background oak forests, in Portugal smoothly me. Saturday afternoon I arrived in this city welcomed him warmly from the tourist authorities about an hour I went together to exchange information.
The useful information of Andre Ventinhas helped me to see this beautiful that city I studied with an open view. History of the city into an important part of the history and important events have split the first part of the pre-history to the 12th century, from the 12th century to the 16th, 17th and 18th century, Nineteenth-century and contemporary period. The inclusion of important historical period has made the city into a large center of historical and archaeological research in Portugal turn. Andre intense interest in Iran gave up part of our conversations focused on showing some of the beauties of her country, Iran for many Europeans with whom I chat is a magical land, hope part of which will be developed in the Zagros can provide useful information to the development of tourism enthusiasts Portuguese, and I am co-archeology and history.
The absence of detailed information in English can be seen in many historical works and I think the duty of every citizen with intelligence and interest in that part of their activities to provide a new grant of land.
Evora city owes activity André de Resende (1498-1573) monk and father of Portugal’s archaeological, anthropological research, many of the monks had helped a lot in her introduction. I was in the city to coincide with the arrival of the marathon race to be held, and I counted the opportunity and part of my photography was devoted to this subject, a small town but alive and joyful. One of the oldest universities in Portugal to name University of Evora, one of the monuments was another of my visit. You need to visit this small town will have 3 days, full-time museum, the city will dazzle your eyes.
The name of Evora originally derived from the Latin name Ebora Liberalitas Julia, in most parts of the city you can see the remains of the Roman period, remains one of the greatest works of the period up to the highest temple in the city, this temple known as the Temple of Diana and construction dates back to the first century AD.
In the vicinity of the ancient temple city of Evora, that is a very rich museum with valuable collections of art in its place. The museum on the works of the remains of Roman times made him bishop of the old building of the museum, temple sculptures from the excavations in the nineteenth century, all are displayed in the museum and sculpture Silenus is a famous name.
Another place that will amaze the eyes of everyone to the bone dreaded Church, Church of St. Francis in the years 1460 to 1510 were made on the basis of a Gothic architecture, Capela dos Ossos or the bone church by some Franciscan monks in was built in the 16th century, the monks decided to bones as inescapable connection with the death of a show rather than in soil. At the door of the porch of the Church of St. Francis of the sentence is written:
Nós ossos que aqui estamos, pelos vossos esperamos: “Our bones that are here wait for yours!”
5,000 Approximate number of bones that belonged to the fighters and victims of the fighting, the bones of monks who founded the building will not be displayed and the two white coffins on the porch, with, in some parts of the church Latin phrases such as “The day that I die is better than the day that I was born”.
Attending the porch for a while you are out of this world and the country’s spirits.
According to Professor Fatima Nunes one of the leading figures in the history of Portuguese oak trees so intertwined with the lives of the people of this country that cannot be considered the dividing line between the tree and life. In other words, the people living under the umbrella of oak trees have a common life with the trees.
In the past period, the population of acorn flour bread that has continued to the present, this issue, like the issue can also be found in Lorestan, in my interview with Mr. Afshar, I realized in the Acorn 30 with the spread of famine in Iran owes its life to stay Zagros people know Flour the fruit. Contemporary Portugal because of the importance of processed bark and turn it useful as a raw material, especially in the province of Portugal Alenteijo daily revenue from products obtained tree.
Continuing the journey to the city portal, you’ll notice that all the land has been owned and oak are well cared for. Given the amount of grazing and physical protection of these trees is one of the profile of the importance of this tree is in Portuguese.
Before heading to Portugal, I had a meeting with Dr. Shirin Abolqasemi, the project manager of Zagros and I realized one of the main causes of degradation from overgrazing is in the Zagros Mountains. It is well under control in Portugal.
Oak tree by its growth and reproduction of seeds, when the squirrels are hiding in the ground the seeds sprout after a while, but in the presence of large animals eaten by livestock buds.
Large companies such as Portugal AMORIM and product GRANORTE bark of oak purchased from the owners of the land on a regular basis. This is the job of most of the people in Portel.
The small but beautiful city of Portel is located close to Spain and Portugal are most of the capital oak, Most of the people working for large companies active in industries oak.
I met Jose, who was one of the bars’ owners of the town and spent night in his home. All the night in the cafe, I talked with a large number of indigenous people on the impact of the oak trees on their lives. To capture beautiful oak forests with off-road car of Jose 4 am to heights of Porto a dirt track until the morning we went and sat down to watch the beauty of the trees. It was so exciting to villagers who talked with great care and I sat down.
The problem of deforestation for the villagers’ Portel was not defined. The lives of these people were under the umbrella of oak and chestnut color was part of their lives.
My trip to the south of the city of Portel continued Guadiana National Park, National PMR is one of the historical sites and protected in Portugal, where virgin to see the trees in nature, in the heart of the city park, which is called Mertola in the last ancient port city on the river are gone Guadiana. That was a small town with an ancient castle above the city that was similar to Khorramabad, Lorestan.
One of the most prominent features of houses in the villages and towns of Portugal’s was the architectural homogeneity, uniformity of color and height balance that Iran is not building anything. Beautiful city belongs to everyone and a personal interest of the residents was the first priority. The city had a good talk with the officer and vice president of deep thinking that he was the cultural issues of this country. Interestingly enough, the Muslim festival held every two year in Mertola. Christians and Muslims on the territory of the Roman period have been formed. Living in different periods has left works that attracted the eyes of all.
Fernando accompanied by one of the locals and tourists and art students to different areas of this part of Portugal for shots and sees the old oak tree that I was with.
One of the interesting things that drew my attention Mertola very similar to traditional art and textile products it designs from the Islamic period was very evident in the designs of these fabrics. As the tribe’s traditional process of wool yarn thread was woven by primitive homemade devices made was beautiful.
In addition, use of oak bark is one of the most important achievements of the region’s livestock, livestock grazing has caused the control to keep this pristine area by talking with some biologists area that I realized I had a serious injury for cattle grazing pastures Portugal, wide initiatives in the area to prevent cattle grazing there for us knowing that they will not be too unpleasant.
Numerous museums Mertola city was one of the interesting parts of this city, it was widely expected that one of the hotels in this town was built on ancient monuments and well it was maintained. Profiles of Islamic art were seen everywhere in the art of this land.
After my three-day visit to the south of the city and province Mertola oak trees took a step last point, what attracted me more than the trees and see the ocean was beautiful Atlantic coast that is rarely like it in the world.
The first part of my journey with the baggage of experience and knowledge about this beautiful country ended, what achievements of our people was for me a different view of God and the people of Portugal to the oak tree, mixed with a sense of acclaimed look at the country, is my way Zagros started to visit the country, a land of myth as old as the history of the world.
We are not captured land fluidity and require knowledge and kindness. Oak trees in the land I will show how the research process will be able to replace coal soaring oak trees of our culture.